Hi, I am Dr. Purva with over 12 years of global experience in healthcare as a General Practitioner and Administrator in UAE, USA, and India. I did M.B.B.S. and Postgraduate Diploma in Geriatric Medicine and am fully DHA certified.
I like to practice the best care for Women’s and Men’s health, Immunizations, Aesthetics, GI, Skin, respiratory, cardiac and lifestyle diseases.
Today, we will discuss “Thyroid gland and related disorders”.
The thyroid gland is located in the lower part of the neck, in front of the trachea, below Adam’s apple. It has two lobes connected to each other by an isthmus. It produces important hormones like T3, T4 and calcitonin. TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone is secreted by the pituitary and is responsible for stimulating T3 & T4 production.
Thyroid diseases are very common. They can be due to excess or decreased function of the thyroid gland. Excessive thyroid hormone secretion causes “Hyperthyroidism” while, decreased thyroid hormone secretion causes “Hypothyroidism”. The thyroid is also prone to tumors causing lumps in the thyroid gland which can be benign or malignant.
Hyperthyroidism can be due to Graves’ disease, Thyroiditis or tumors secreting excess thyroid hormones. The symptoms and signs of “Hyperthyroidism” include most of these: Nervousness, tremor, agitation, irritability, poor concentration, reduced menstrual blood flow in women, palpitations, tachycardia, heat intolerance, changes in bowel habits- ex. frequent bowel movements, enlargement of thyroid gland, skin thinning, brittle hair, increased appetite and hunger.
Hypothyroidism can be due to an autoimmune condition is known as Hashimoto’s disease or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, certain medications, side effects of treatments for thyroid cancer or hyperthyroidism, or radiation therapy to the head and neck.
Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism include mostly sluggishness, depression, excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding, fluid retention, bloating, puffiness of face, weight gain, high blood cholesterol, feeling cold, or increased sensitivity to cold temperatures, joint pains, dry skin, constipation, fatigue, memory problems, thin hair or hair loss, hoarseness of voice, slowed heart rate.
Treatment for most hypo or hyperthyroid disorders includes various medications.
Thyroid nodules or lumps are non-cancerous or benign in 90% cases. They can be caused due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Iodine deficiency, cysts leading to thyroid nodules, radiation, virus, etc. Symptoms and signs of a thyroid lump include difficulty in swallowing, lump in the neck, difficulty in breathing due to pressure on the trachea, symptoms if there is malignancy in the gland.
After proper investigations and confirmation of diagnosis, treatment may vary from resection, radiation to chemotherapy.
Take care and wish you great health!
Dr Purva Gupta